Page 8-9     Index       Print in PDF       <<Previous page         Next page>>
    The English text below is a machine-translation of the Swedish original text above

I. Old Nordic runic inscriptions.

 In the second century AD did our ancestors enjoy the blessings of the letter scripts, and was aware of the runes. The language from this part of the prehistorically iron age, as we know them from samples of the runes, is called the old Nordic language. Another source to knowledge about this time's old language are given us by the Swedish loanwords adapted in Finnish and Lappish which goes back to 0 AD or even longer. The old Nordic language was spoken approx. from the time of the birth of Christ to about 800 AD when the Viking time started. It used to be assumed, that it is in Denmark the oldest runic insriptions exist. This is on the objects in the big findings in bogs in Vimose on Fyn (c 250 AD) and Thorsbjerg in Slesvig (c 300 AD), which probably provide sacrifice of those killed in bloody wars. There is a find in Norway at Stabu in Kristians county on a spearpoint with runic inscription in a grave from the end of the third century. Probably came the awareness of runes to Sweden at approximately the same

time as to Denmark or some latter, although we not own so old inscriptions in retains.

The oldest Swedish runic inscription is just a little bit younger than the Danish. It is on spearpoint from Moos on Gotland, now in the State's hist. museum, that is considered to originate in the 3:d cent and has the inscription sioag, that probably is magic runes regarding to the accumulation of vowels.
The second oldest runic inscription is once more the runic stone from Kylver (1) on Gotland, now in the State's hist. museum, as constituted a gablestone in a grave chamber under flatland with some ancient things, belonging to the 4th cent. The inscription is constituted of the old Nordic runic alphabet:

f u þ a r k g w   h n i j p ї R s   t b e m l ŋ d o

where however on runstenen the runes a, s, b, is turned runes, that is turned to wrong direction, which sometime occurs, and then a so called twigsrune with three dashes on the left side of the staff and on the right side 7 or 8.
That is one of  the runes g or w after for the reading of twigsrunes current rule (see p. 32 f.). O. v. Friesen assuming gives 6 staffs on the left side and on right side 7 or possibly 8. To the right stands a runegroup sulius or sueus.
This way of  presentate the runes with letters is called to translitter them and is used

(1) O. v. Friesen and H. Hansson in "Ant. tidskr. f. Sverige 18, nr 2."

  Page 8-9     Index       Print in PDF       <<Previous page         Next page>>